Question 3. Why? Question 19. 5. Electropositive character increases on going down the group. 3. Which is more basic NaOH or Mg(OH)2? (iii) Quick lime Alkali metal salts are soluble and nitrate salts are not. Li+ < Na+ NaNH2(am) + —1/2 H2(g). Nitrates. Question 1. (i) CaC03 (ii) CaSO4 2H2O Nitrates of alkaline and alkali metals give corresponding nitrites except for lithium nitrate, it gives lithium oxides. All enzymes that utilise ATP in phosphate transfer require magnesium as a cofactor. (i) BeO is almost insoluble but BeSO4 is soluble in water. Question 29. 1. Trump suggests he may not sign $900B stimulus bill. Answer: NaOH is more basic. Potassium carbonate cannot be prepared by Solvay process. Only strontium hydroxide ( Sr(OH) 2) and barium hydroxides ( Ba(OH) 2) are completely soluble from alkaline earth metals. (c) more oxidizing (d) less basic than alkali metals. CaO + CO 2 ↑ The thermal stability of carbonates of alkaline earth metals increase down the group. You can check out similar questions with solutions below. Why is LiF almost insoluble in water whereas LiCl soluble not only in water but also in acetone? What do you mean by diagonal relationship in periodic table? Ionisation energy goes on decreasing down the group. Alkali salts are all ionic which refers to the bonding mechanism of the crystalline solid. Answer: Due to smallest size, Li+ can polarize water molecules easily than the other alkali metal ions. Note concerning #7 just above: Some older sources might include ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) as a soluble hydroxide. Which of the following is used in photoelectric cells? All acetates (ethanoates) are soluble. Na + C2H5OH ——–> C2H5ONa + ½ H2. Report: Team paid $1.6M to settle claim against Snyder At anode: How is it prepared? Question 7. Sodium Nitrate. Lithium halides LiBr and LiI are covalent compound. Alkali metal and nitrate salts are never soluble. Solubility rules that apply to water solution: (1) All alkali metal (lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, and cesium) and ammonium compounds are soluble. LiF is soluble in non-polar solvents like kerosene. Beryllium and magnesium do not give colour to flame whereas other alkaline earth metals do so. Nitrates can be prepared by reacting the corresponding oxides, hydroxides and carbonates with nitric acid. Question 10. Nitrates (NO 3-), chlorates (ClO 3-), and perchlorates (ClO 4-) are soluble. Write the chemical formula of the following compounds. What happens when crystals of washing soda are exposed to air? Na is liberated at the cathode. (c) Na2O and CO2 How would you explain the following observations? 2Na- Hg + 2H20——>2NaOH +H2 +Hg Answer: Since group 1 hydroxides and carbonates due to large size contain higher hydration energy than the lattice energy so, they are easily soluble in water. When heated to 800°C, NaN03 gives (b) Because the discharge potential of alkali metals is much higher than that of hydrogen, therefore when the aqueous solution of any alkali metal chloride is subjected to electrolysis, H2, instead of the alkali metal, is produced at the cathode. 2Cl– (melt) ——-> Cl2 (g) + 2e–. Question 2. the alkali metals with those of alkaline earth metals (a) nitrates (b) carbonates (c) sulphates. MgCl2, CaCl2, SrCl2, BaCl2 For example, a typical Group 2 nitrate like magnesium nitrate decomposes this way: (1) 2 M g (N O 3) 2 (s) → 2 M g O (s) + 4 N O 2 (g) + O 2 (g) (a) Question 5. Which of the following is not a peroxide? (b) a sodium amalgum reacts with water to produce NaOH which gives Na2CO3 on reacting with CO2 In the Solvay process Explain. Question 9. (a)Na + N2 + O2 (b) NaNO2 + O2 (c) Na2O + O2 + N2 (d)NaN3 + O2 (d) 3. (ii) Both BaO and BaSO4 are ionic compounds but the hydration energy of BaO is higher than the lattice energy therefore it is soluble in water. Why are alkali metals soft and have low melting points? Answer: Alkali metals are highly reactive in nature. Question 2. On heating, Beryllium nitrate forms nitrite and, other nitrates yield oxide, liberating brown fumes of nitrogen dioxide. (a) Lithium iodide is more covalent than lithium fluoride. v) Solubility in liquid ammonia Topics and Subtopics in NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 10 The s-Block Elements: NCERT Solutions Class 11 ChemistryChemistry Lab ManualChemistry Sample Papers. Halogen rule 1. What happens when sodium metal is heated in free supply of air? (a) Na2O2 and water Question 30. This means that their lattice enthalpies are more as compared to the compounds of sodium and potassium. Heating the nitrates. This is because their hydration energies decreases more rapidly than their lattice energies. (a) Li (b) Na (c) K (d) Cs Melting point nad boiling point of particular alkali metal follow the order Fluorides > Chlorides > Bromides > Iodides. (c) Lithium on being heated in air mainly forms the monoxide and not the peroxide. Answer: (i) Lattice energy of BeO is compartively higher than the hydration energy. (a) MgCO3 (b) CaCO3 (c) SrCO3 (d)BeCO3 No common ones. (b) Carbonates of group 1 elements are soluble in water except Li2CO3 They are also thermally stable except Li2CO3 (a) Pb (b) Mg  (c) Ca (d) Al As a result, these metals easily emit electrons on exposure to light. Solution for Which of the statement is false regarding solubility rule A. They are less electropositive than alkali metals. (a) Nitrates (b) Carbonates (c) Sulphates Answer: (a) Nitrates of both group 1 and group 2 elements are soluble in water because hydration energy is more than the lattice energy. So, solubility should decrease from Li to Cs. (b) Used in the purification of sugar and in the manufacturing of cement. Question 7. Answer: Li2CO3 is a covalent compound whereas Na2CO3 is an ionic compound. Question 17. All nitrate (NO 3 ¯), nitrite (NO 2 ¯), chlorate (ClO 3 ¯) and perchlorate (ClO 4 ¯) salts are soluble. Explain the reason for this type of colour change. (a) Na (b) K (c) Rb (d) Cs 4. (c) Li < Cs < Rb < K < Na (d) Rb < Cs < K < Na < Li (i) NaHCO3 (ii) NaOH 1. Question 15. Each rule has exceptions and the important ones are noted. Answer: Li+ is the smallest. a) Alkali metal salts are soluble and nitrate salts are not. Question 18. Question 9. Why are potassium and caesium, rather than lithium used in photoelectric cells? Compare the alkali metals and alkaline earth metals with respect to (i) ionization enthalpy, (ii) basicity of oxides, (iii) solubility of hydroxides. Nitrates. Answer: It is because ionization enthalpy ∆Hi of potassium = 419 kJ mol -1. Halogen rule 7. Their solubility in water increases on moving down the group because their lattice enthalpies decrease more rapidly than the hydration enthalpies. (iii) Sodium peroxide (iv) Sodium carbonate? Some Li + are insoluble, with Li 3 PO 4 being the most common example. [ M = Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba] (b) Carbonates- Question 6. Question 5. Na + H2O —–> NaOH + 1/2H2 Alkali metals are highly reactive in nature. Lithium nitrate on heating evolves O 2 and NO 2 and forms Li 2 O while other alkali metal nitrates on heating evolve and form their respective nitrites. Down the group thermal stability of nitrates increases. (b) Valence electrons of alkali metals like Na and K easily absorb energy from the MgO is basic and Mg (OH)2 is weakly basic and do not dissolve in NaOH solution. Question 2. Question 11. Question 4. Lithium shows a diagonal relationship with The oxides of calcium, strontium, and barium are basic and the hydroxides are strongly basic. Alkali metals dissolve in liquid ammonia to form blue and conducting solution. The exceptions are the alkali metal hydroxides and Ba(OH) 2. Therefore lithium chloride dissolves in water. All Cl-, Br-, and I+ compounds are soluble except for Ag+, Hg2… All So4-2 compounds are soluble except for Ca+2, Ba+2, Sr+2, H… Why are ionic hydrides of only alkali metals and alkaline earth metals are known? Question 4. Which statement is true? Hydrides as well as halides of alkaline earth metals tend to polymerize State as to why 2Na + O2 ——-> Na2O2. Therefore, these are soft and have low melting point. Alkali metals due to lower ionization enthalpy are more electropositive than the corresponding group 2 elements. (iii) Lil is more soluble than KI in ethanol. Alkaline earth metal nitrates are water soluble. Question 14. Answer: Question 8. Therefore alkali metals are prepared by electrolysis of their fused chlorides. Why is BeCl2 soluble in organic solvent? That’s why they always exist in combined state in nature. Carbonates of alkaline earth metals are insoluble in water. Answer: The blue colour of the solution is due to ammoniated electron which absorbs energy in the visible region of light and imparts blue colour. Give the chemical formula of Epsom salt. (a) and (d) 7. Discuss the various reactions that occur in the Solvay process. All nitrate (NO 3 ¯), nitrite (NO 2 ¯), chlorate (ClO 3 ¯) and perchlorate (ClO 4 ¯) salts are soluble. Answer: Question 3. Answer: (a) Smaller the size of the ion, more highly it is hydrated and hence greater is the mass of the hydrated ion and thus the ionic mobility become lesser. . (b) When is a cation highly polarising? Question 24. What is Quick lime? Q9. Question 16. The hydroxides and carbonates of sodium and potassium are easily soluble in water while the corresponding salts of magnesium and calcium are sparingly soluble in water. Alkali metals impart characteristic colours to the flame. Answer: Question 18. (d)Since, among alkali metals, lithium has the most negative electrode potential (E° = -3.04 V) so, it is the strongest reducing agent in the aqueous solution. The exceptions are the alkali metal hydroxides and Ba (OH) 2. (ii) Solubility : All the carbonates of alkali metals are generally soluble in water and their solubility increase rapidly on descending the group. Which of the following is the least thermally stable? Answer: (i) Ionization enthalpy. Why? Thus, it has the highest charge density and hence attracts the water molecules more strongly. (iii) Na2O2 + 2H20 ———> 2NaOH + H2O2. (c) Ee for M2+ (aq) + 2e– —> M(s) (where M = Ca, Sr, or Ba) is nearly constant. Question 16. Answer: (d) BaCO3. Answer: They are always univalent because after losing one electron, they aquire nearest inert gas configuration.Li+ forms largest hydrated cations because it has the highest hydration energy. (i) Sodium metal (ii) Sodium hydroxide Carbonates of alkali metals are soluble in water with the exception of Li2CO 3. Which alkaline earth metals do not impart colour to the flame? Question 26. Other solubility tables can be seen via this solubility table search. 2M(NO 3) 2 → 2MO + 4 NO 2 + O 2. (a) Compare four properties of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals. Nitrates and acetates are generally soluble. Answer: Alkali metals due to low ionization energy absorb energy from visible region to radiate complementary colour. Question 19. 3. Why are alkali metals always univalent? Answer:  Potassium and caesium have much lower ionization enthalpy than that of lithium. (b) high lattice enthalpy. Why do alkali metals give characteristic flame colouration? Answer: (a) Na2O2 + 2H2O ——-> 2Na0H + H2O2 (b) 2KO2 + 2H2O ———-> 2K0H + O2+ H2O2 2. Participate in the oxidation of glucose to produce ATP. Question 21. (b) Smaller the size (internuclear distance), more is the value of Lattice enthalpy since internuclear distance is expected to be least in the LiF. H2O, C2H5OH and Benzene Lead and Silver rule 1. Rule: Important Exceptions 1. : Silver nitrite and potassium perchlorate are considered slightly soluble. 3. 2M(NO 3) … The rules form a list so when they seem to contradict, the higher one takes precedent. Which of the following is used in photoelectric cells? (a) Nitrates-Alkali and alkaline earth metal nitrates are soluble in water. 2Cl-(aq) – 2e- ———> Cl2(g). CaC2 + N2 ——–> CaCN2 + C, Question 1. (iii) Sulphates. of Alkali Metal and Nitrate salts are always soluble. In dentistry, in ornamental work for making statues. SOLUBILITY RULES A SUMMARY OF SOLUBILITIES RULE EXCEPTIONS 1. What happens when (i) magnesium is burnt in air, (ii) Quick lime is heated with silica (iii) chlorine reacts with slaked lime (iv) calcium nitrate is heated? (ii) 2Na + O2 ———> Na2O2 Lithium shows a diagonal relationship with, (a) sodium (b) silicon (c) nitrogen (d)magnesium, (a) an ammoniacal brine solution is carbonated with CO2, forming NaHCO3 which on decomposition at 150°C produces Na2CO3, (b) a sodium amalgum reacts with water to produce NaOH which gives Na2CO3 on reacting with CO2, (c) A brine solution is made to react with BaCO3 to produce Na2CO3. Question 9. The solubility data at 1 bar or saturation pressure for sodium nitrate are reviewed. (d). (c) Since potassium is move reactive than sodium and it is found in nature to a less extent than Na, sodium is found to be more useful. Which of the following is not a peroxide? © NCERTGUESS.COM 2020 - Powered by PipQuantum Inc . Therefore, it is almost insoluble in water. This website has definitions for soluble, insoluble and slightly soluble plus a good set of rules for solubility at the end of the file. Question 20. The most important slightly soluble substance is calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2. Describe two important uses of each of the following: , When ammonia gas (NH3) is bubbled through water, it dissolves and a small number of ammonia molecules react with the water to produce NH4+ and OH¯ ions. The solubilities of the hydroxides in water follow the order: Be (OH)2 < Mg (OH)2 < Ca (OH)2 < Sr (OH)2 < Ba (OH)2. These rules are general and qualitative in nature. For example,Li2CO3 +heat -> Li­2O +CO2MgCO3 +Heat -> MgO +CO2Na2CO3 +heat -> no effect.The stabilities of carbonates of alkaline earth metals increase on … (c) Na2O+ CO2 ———–>Na2CO3. Nitrate and Alkali Metal rule 2. The Solubility Rules. When alkali metal dissolves in liquid ammonia, the solution can acquire different colours. All alkali metals hydroxides are soluble in water. Where appropriate, binary, ternary, and multicomponent systems are critically evaluated. Solubilities of the halides, nitrates, carbonates, sulfates, and some perchlorates of all the alkali metals and alkaline earth metals in methanol at room temperature have been determined. 2. compounds of the alkali metals and the ammonium ion are generally soluble. Thus Lil dissolves in ethanol more easily than the KI. Question 27. Answer:  (i) Caustic soda (c) Sodium is found to be move useful than potassium? Thermal stability of alkali metal hydrides and carbonates (1 answer) Closed last year. Volume 89: Jitka Eysseltová and Violetta Timofeevna Orlova Alkali Metal Nitrates (two parts) IUPAC Project Part 1. (b) and (d) 8. (a) 9. (b) Na and K impart colour to the flame but Mg does not. All Alkali metals and Ammonium compounds are soluble. Answer:(i) NaNO3 (ii) CaCO3 (iii) NaCl. Explain the following: Answer: Due to ammoniated electrons and cations. Keep in mind that there will be slight variations from table to table. 2. compounds of the alkali metals and the ammonium ion are generally soluble. The reducing property of alkali metals follows the order Answer: BeCl2 (vapour) Question 6. Explain why is sodium less reactive than potassium. Answer: (a) Nitrates of both group 1 and group 2 elements are soluble in water because hydration energy is more than the lattice energy. Most hydroxide (OH¯) salts are insoluble. Answer: Benzene can be used to store an alkali metal because other substances react with alkali metal as: Data on some, such as cesium and rubidium fluoride, nitrate, carbonate, and sulfate, appear to be reported for the first time. (a) MgCO3 (b) CaCO3 (c) SrCO3 (d) BaCO3 Name the alkali metal which shows diagonal relationship with magnesium? In the vapour state, it exists as a chlorobridged dimer. On moving down the group, their solubility decreases. Lead and Silver rule 2. Explain why can alkali and alkaline earth metals not be obtained by chemical reduction method. Answer: Since BeCl2 is a covalent compound it is soluble in organic solvent. What is the general name for elements of group 1 ? Ammonium (NH 4 +) compounds are soluble. Answer: Monohydrate (Na2CO3– H2O) is formed as a result of efflorescence. 4Na + 02 2Na2O + 02 Ca(OH) 2 is slightly soluble. (c) Sulphates of group 1 are soluble in water except Li2SO4. However, most of the NH3 molecules remain as NH3. Potassium carbonate cannot be prepared by Solvay process. Na+ + e– —–> Na Cl + Cl——–>Cl2 Thus they show an oxidation state of +1 and are strongly electropositive. In case of sodium and potassium compounds, the magnitude of lattice enthalpy is quite small as compared of sodium and potassium that are mentioned, readily dissolve in water. 1. Question 14. Question 8. Reactivity of halogen towards particular alkali metal follows the order F 2 > Cl 2 > Br 2 > I 2 ... Alkali metal nitrates (MNO 3) decompose on strong heating to corresponding nitrite and O 2 ... as corresponding slats of other alkali metals are freely soluble vi) Li form imide ( LiNH) with ammonia while other alkali metals form amides ( MNH 2) Explain. Answer: Question 10. No common ones. Sulphates of both group 1 and group 2 metals are stable towards heat. No common ones. (c) 10. What is soda ash? This substance does not exist; it cannot be isolated as a pure substance. 2. NCERT Solutions Class 11 Business Studies, NCERT Solutions Class 11 Entrepreneurship, NCERT Solutions Class 11 Indian Economic Development, NCERT Solutions Class 11 Computer Science. Question 31. At anode: Question 6. (b) Lithium cannot be used in making photoelectric cells because out of all the alkali metals it has highest ionization energy and thus cannot emit electrons when exposed to light. (d) all of the above This means that the magnitude of hydration enthalpy is quite large. Solubility: (a) Alkali metals: Nitrates, carbonates and sulphates of alkali metals are soluble in water. Question 13. Nitrates of alkaline and alkali metals give corresponding nitrites except for lithium nitrate, it gives lithium oxides. Also, the solubility increases as we move down the group. Answer: (a) According to Fazan’s rule, Li+ ion can polarise  l– ion more than the F– ion due to bigger size of the anion. (c) Due to small size, lithium does not form alums. What is dead burnt plaster? 6. Nitrates and acetates are generally soluble. In fact, these metals can precipitate from their salt solutions as carbonates.Nitrates: Thermal stabilityNitrates of alkali metals,except LiNO3, decompose on strong heating forming nitrites and oxygen. Lithium Nitrate , JPCRD, 2010 , 39 , 033104. Which one of the following alkaline earth metal carbonates is thermally most stable? Answer:  Alkali metals. Answer: (i) 2Na + 2H2O ——–> 2NaOH + H2 BeCO 3 is least stable and BaCO 3 is most stable. It is prepared by heating CaC2 with N2 at high temperature. All nitrates are soluble, even if it’s a lead nitrate. : Some Li + are insoluble, with Li 3 PO 4 being the most common example. Answer: This is due to the reason that potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3) formed as an intermediate (when CO2 gas is passed through ammoniated solution of potassium chloride) is highly soluble in water and cannot be separated by filtration. Answer:  It is called Nitrolime. (c) Lithium does not form alums. (a) Why Cs is considered as the most electropositive element? From Li to Cs, thermal stability of carbonates increases. (a) It is used in the manufacturing of soap paper, artificial silk etc. Therefore, the hydroxides and carbonates of these metals are only sparingly soluble in water. Whereas  BeSO4 is ionic in nature and its hydration energy dominates the lattice energy. The reducing property of alkali metals follows the order, (a) Na < K < Rb < Cs < Li (b) K < Na < Rb < Cs < Li, (c) Li < Cs < Rb < K < Na (d) Rb < Cs < K < Na < Li. Indeed, I found one website with four terms. The rules form a list so when they seem to contradict, the higher one takes precedent. (a) Na (b) K (c) Li (d) Cs (a) Used in the softening of water, for laundry and cleaning purposes. In the transport of sugars and amino acids into cell. Magnesium atom has small size so electrons are strongly bound to the nucleus. energy levels which is not possible in bunsen flame. . (4) Chlorides, bromides, and iodides are soluble Question 7. Nitrate and Alkali Metal rule 3. Arrange the following in the increasing order of solubility in water. Nitrates , carbonates and sulphates of Alkali metals are soluble in water . Solubilities of the halides, nitrates, carbonates, sulfates, and some perchlorates of all the alkali metals and alkaline earth metals in methanol at room temperature have been determined. Question  21. Answer:  Li. Since Ionization enthalpy of potassium is less than that of sodium, potassium is more reactive than sodium. Why are alkali metals soft? (d) Li is the best reducing agent in aqueous solution. Why does the solution of alkali metals becomes blue in liquid ammonia? Therefore, a large amount of energy is needed to excite their valence electron, and that’s why they do not impart colour to the flame. The extent of hydration decreases in the order. (a) Nitrates (b) Carbonates (c) Sulphates Answer: (a) Nitrates of both group 1 and group 2 elements are soluble in water because hydration energy is more than the lattice energy. How would you prepare sodium silicate from silica? However, in case of corresponding magnesium and calcium compounds, the cations have smaller sizes and more magnitude of positive charge. Answer:  Sodium peroxide is formed. Question 4. No common ones. There is no such thing as NH4OH as a separate substance which can be isolated in pure form. 7. (a) It is used in the preparation of bleaching powder. Why is LiF almost insoluble in water whereas LiCl soluble not only in water but also in acetone? Why is Li2CO3 decomposed at a lower temperature whereas Na2CO3 at higher temperature? ALkali metals are distinguished by having a single electron in its outermost (most reactive) ground state. (i) Sodium metal is dropped in water? Answer: Due to small size, the ionization enthalpies of Be and Mg are much higher than those of other alkaline earth metals. Question 5. (b) Lithium is the only alkali metal to form a nitride directly. Because of high nuclear charge the ionization enthalpy Answer: Potassium carbonate being more soluble than sodium bicarbonate does not get precipitated when CO2 is passed through a concentrated solution of KCl saturated with ammonia. (ii) Basicity of oxides. Which one of the following alkali metals give hydrated salts? Find out the oxidation state of sodium in Na2O2. At cathode: What happens when it is added to water? Their resultant is almost constant for these ions. Most nitrates tend to decompose on heating to the metal oxide, brown fumes of nitrogen dioxide, and oxygen. 1. Starting with sodium chloride how would you proceed to prepare. (b) Due to its smaller size lithium can form nitride directly. ‘ … Solubility of sulphates of group 2 decreases down the group because Lattice energy dominates over hydration energy. Question 9. (c) 4. Answer:  CaO is quick lime. From Li to Cs, due to larger ion size, hydration enthalpy decreases. plays important roles in neuromuscular function. 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To decompose on heating, forming an oxide and carbon dioxide decompose on heating, Beryllium forms...